Media > Telephone system > General assessment: Countries Compared

DEFINITION: A brief characterization of the system with details on the domestic and international components. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: Africa ONE - a fiber-optic submarine cable link encircling the continent of Africa.
Afghanistan limited fixed-line telephone service; an increasing number of Afghans utilize mobile-cellular phone networks
Albania despite new investment in fixed lines, teledensity remains low with roughly 10 fixed lines per 100 people; mobile-cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective
Algeria privatization of Algeria's telecommunications sector began in 2000; three mobile cellular licenses have been issued and, in 2005, a consortium led by Egypt's Orascom Telecom won a 15-year license to build and operate a fixed-line network in Algeria; the license will allow Orascom to develop high-speed data and other specialized services and contribute to meeting the large unfulfilled demand for basic residential telephony; Internet broadband services began in 2003
American Samoa good telex, telegraph, facsimile, and cellular telephone services
Andorra modern automatic telephone system
Angola limited system; state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed-lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network; by 2010, the number of fixed-line providers had expanded to 5; Angola Telecom established mobile-cellular service in Luanda in 1993 and the network has been extended to larger towns; a privately owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001
Anguilla modern internal telephone system
Antarctica local systems at some research stations
Antigua and Barbuda good automatic telephone system
Argentina in 1998 Argentina opened its telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment encouraging the growth of modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is improving
Armenia telecommunications investments have made major inroads in modernizing and upgrading the outdated telecommunications network inherited from the Soviet era; now 100% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion; mobile-cellular services monopoly terminated in late 2004 and a second provider began operations in mid-2005
Aruba modern fully automatic telecommunications system
Australia excellent domestic and international service
Austria highly developed and efficient
Azerbaijan requires considerable expansion and modernization; fixed-line telephone and a broad range of other telecom services are controlled by a state-owned telecommunications monopoly and growth has been stagnant; more competition exists in the mobile-cellular market with four providers in 2009
Bahrain modern system
Bangladesh inadequate for a modern country; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities
Barbados island-wide automatic telephone system
Belarus Belarus lags behind its neighbors in upgrading telecommunications infrastructure; modernization of the network progressing with roughly two-thirds of switching equipment now digital
Belgium highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities
Belize above-average system; trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay
Benin inadequate system of open-wire, microwave radio relay, and cellular connections; fixed-line network characterized by aging, deteriorating equipment
Bermuda a good, fully automatic digital telephone system with fiber-optic trunk lines
Bhutan urban towns and district headquarters have telecommunications services
Bolivia Bolivian National Telecommunications Company was privatized in 1995 but re-nationalized in 2007; the primary trunk system is being expanded and employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; system operations, reliability, and coverage have steadily improved.
Bosnia and Herzegovina post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network, aided by a internationally sponsored program, resulting in sharp increases in the number of fixed telephone lines available
Botswana Botswana is participating in regional development efforts; expanding fully digital system with fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers in the east as well as a system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relays links, and radiotelephone communication stations
Brazil good working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations
British Indian Ocean Territory separate facilities for military and public needs are available
British Virgin Islands good overall telephone service
Brunei service throughout the country is good; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US
Bulgaria inherited an extensive but antiquated telecommunications network from the Soviet era; quality has improved with a modern digital trunk line now connecting switching centers in most of the regions; remaining areas are connected by digital microwave radio relay
Burkina Faso system includes microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communication stations; in 2006 the government sold a 51 percent stake in the national telephone company and ultimately plans to retain only a 23 percent stake in the company
Burma meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for business and government
Burundi sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relays
Cambodia adequate fixed-line and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile-cellular phone systems are widely used in urban areas to bypass deficiencies in the fixed-line network; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areas
Cameroon system includes cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter; Camtel, the monopoly provider of fixed-line service, provides connections for only about 3 per 100 persons; equipment is old and outdated, and connections with many parts of the country are unreliable
Canada excellent service provided by modern technology
Cape Verde effective system, extensive modernization from 1996-2000 following partial privatization in 1995
Cayman Islands reasonably good overall telephone system with a high fixed-line teledensity
Central African Republic network consists principally of microwave radio relay and low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication
Chad inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high costs and low telephone density
Chile privatization began in 1988; most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America; modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations
China domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure; China in the summer of 2008 began a major restructuring of its telecommunications industry, resulting in the consolidation of its six telecom service operators to three, China Telecom, China Mobile and China Unicom, each providing both fixed-line and mobile services
Christmas Island service provided by the Australian network
Cocos (Keeling) Islands telephone service is part of the Australian network; an operational local mobile-cellular network available; wireless Internet connectivity available
Colombia modern system in many respects with a nationwide microwave radio relay system, a domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations, and a fiber-optic network linking 50 cities; telecommunications sector liberalized during the 1990s; multiple providers of both fixed-line and mobile-cellular services
Comoros sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communication stations
Congo, Republic of the primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable with services barely adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out of order
Cook Islands Telecom Cook Islands offers international direct dialing, Internet, email, fax, and Telex
Costa Rica good domestic telephone service in terms of breadth of coverage; under the terms of CAFTA-DR, the state-run telecommunications monopoly is scheduled to be opened to competition from domestic and international firms, but has been slow to open to competition
Cote d'Ivoire well-developed by African standards; telecommunications sector privatized in late 1990s and operational fixed-lines have increased since that time with two fixed-line providers operating over open-wire lines, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optics; 90% digitalized
Croatia the telecommunications network has improved steadily since the mid-1990s, covering much of what were once inaccessible areas; local lines are digital
Cuba greater investment beginning in 1994 and the establishment of a new Ministry of Information Technology and Communications in 2000 has resulted in improvements in the system; national fiber-optic system under development; 95% of switches digitized by end of 2006; mobile-cellular telephone service is expensive and must be paid in convertible pesos, which effectively limits subscribership
Cyprus excellent in both area under government control and area administered by Turkish Cypriots
Czech Republic privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; virtually all exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay
Democratic Republic of the Congo barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations; inadequate fixed line infrastructure
Denmark excellent telephone and telegraph services
Djibouti telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate, as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country
Dominica fully automatic network
Dominican Republic relatively efficient system based on island-wide microwave radio relay network
East Timor rudimentary service in urban and some rural areas, which is expanding with the entrance of new competitors
Ecuador elementary fixed-line service, but increasingly sophisticated mobile-cellular network
Egypt underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s; principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
El Salvador multiple mobile-cellular providers are expanding services rapidly and in 2011 teledensity exceeded 135 per 100 persons; growth in fixed-line services has slowed in the face of mobile-cellular competition
Equatorial Guinea digital fixed-line network in most major urban areas and good mobile coverage
Eritrea inadequate; most fixed-line telephones are in Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to improve the system; cell phones in increasing use throughout the country
Estonia foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service with a wide range of high quality voice, data, and Internet services available
Ethiopia inadequate telephone system with the Ethio Telecom maintaining a monopoly over telecommunication services; open-wire, microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) NA
Faroe Islands good international communications; good domestic facilities
Federated States of Micronesia adequate system
Fiji modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications center
Finland modern system with excellent service
France highly developed
French Polynesia NA
Gabon adequate system of cable, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, radiotelephone communication stations, and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
Gaza Strip Gaza continues to repair the damage to its telecommunications infrastructure caused by fighting in 2009
Georgia fixed-line telecommunications network has limited coverage outside Tbilisi; multiple mobile-cellular providers provide services to an increasing subscribership throughout the country
Germany Germany has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part
Ghana primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed; outdated and unreliable fixed-line infrastructure heavily concentrated in Accra
Gibraltar adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities
Greece adequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international service
Greenland adequate domestic and international service provided by satellite, cables and microwave radio relay; totally digital since 1995
Grenada automatic, island-wide telephone system
Guadeloupe domestic facilities inadequate
Guam modern system, integrated with US facilities for direct dialing, including free use of 800 numbers
Guatemala fairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala
Guernsey NA
Guinea inadequate system of open-wire lines, small radiotelephone communication stations, and new microwave radio relay system
Guinea-Bissau small system including a combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and mobile-cellular communications
Guyana fair system for long-distance service; microwave radio relay network for trunk lines; many areas still lack fixed-line telephone services
Haiti telecommunications infrastructure is among the least developed in Latin America and the Caribbean; domestic facilities barely adequate; international facilities slightly better
Holy See (Vatican City) automatic digital exchange
Honduras fixed-line connections are increasing but still limited; competition among multiple providers of mobile-cellular services is contributing to a sharp increase in subscribership
Hong Kong modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services
Hungary the telephone system has been modernized; the system is digital and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996
Iceland telecommunications infrastructure is modern and fully digitized, with satellite-earth stations, fiber-optic cables, and an extensive broadband network
India supported by recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest growing telecom markets in the world; total telephone subscribership base exceeded 900 million in 2011, an overall teledensity of roughly 75%, and subscribership is currently growing more than 20 million per month; urban teledensity now exceeds 100% and rural teledensity is steadily growing
Indonesia domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good
Iran currently being modernized and expanded with the goal of not only improving the efficiency and increasing the volume of the urban service but also bringing telephone service to several thousand villages, not presently connected
Iraq the 2003 liberation of Iraq severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Iraq including international connections; widespread government efforts to rebuild domestic and international communications through fiber optic links are in progress; the mobile cellular market has expanded rapidly to some 27 million subscribers by the end of 2012
Ireland modern digital system using cable and microwave radio relay
Israel most highly developed system in the Middle East
Italy modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services
Jamaica fully automatic domestic telephone network
Japan excellent domestic and international service
Jersey increasingly modern system, with broadband access
Johnston Atoll 33 commercial lines, 15 incoming and 18 outgoing; adequate telecommunications
Jordan service has improved recently with increased use of digital switching equipment; microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; growing mobile-cellular usage in both urban and rural areas is reducing use of fixed-line services
Kazakhstan inherited an outdated telecommunications network from the Soviet era requiring modernization
Kenya inadequate; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system
Kiribati generally good quality national and international service
Kuwait the quality of service is excellent
Kyrgyzstan telecommunications infrastructure is being upgraded; loans from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) are being used to install a digital network, digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links
Laos service to general public is improving; the government relies on a radiotelephone network to communicate with remote areas
Latvia recent efforts focused on bringing competition to the telecommunications sector; the number of fixed lines is decreasing as mobile-cellular telephone service expands
Lebanon repair of the telecommunications system, severely damaged during the civil war, now complete
Lesotho rudimentary system consisting of a modest number of landlines, a small microwave radio relay system, and a small radiotelephone communication system; mobile-cellular telephone system is expanding
Liberia the limited services available are found almost exclusively in the capital Monrovia; fixed-line service stagnant and extremely limited; telephone coverage extended to a number of other towns and rural areas by four mobile-cellular network operators
Libya telecommunications system is state-owned and service is poor, but investment is being made to upgrade; state retains monopoly in fixed-line services; mobile-cellular telephone system became operational in 1996
Liechtenstein automatic telephone system
Lithuania adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access
Luxembourg highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables
Macau fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services
Madagascar system is above average for the region; Antananarivo's main telephone exchange modernized in the late 1990s, but the rest of the analogue-based telephone system is poorly developed
Malawi rudimentary; privatization of Malawi Telecommunications (MTL), a necessary step in bringing improvement to telecommunications services, completed in 2006
Malaysia modern system featuring good intercity service on Peninsular Malaysia provided mainly by microwave radio relay and an adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; international service excellent
Maldives telephone services have improved; inter-atoll communication through microwave links; all inhabited islands and resorts are connected with telephone and fax service
Mali domestic system unreliable but improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas
Malta automatic system featuring submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands
Marshall Islands digital switching equipment; modern services include telex, cellular, Internet, international calling, caller ID, and leased data circuits
Martinique domestic facilities are adequate
Mauritania limited system of cable and open-wire lines, minor microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations; mobile-cellular services expanding rapidly
Mauritius small system with good service
Mayotte small system administered by French Department of Posts and Telecommunications
Mexico adequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable
Moldova poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way
Monaco modern automatic telephone system; the country's sole fixed line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customers
Mongolia network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas; a fiber-optic network has been installed that is improving broadband and communication services between major urban centers with multiple companies providing inter-city fiber-optic cable services
Montenegro modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites
Montserrat modern and fully digitalized
Morocco good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay; Internet available but expensive
Mozambique a fair telecommunications system that is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges
Namibia good system; core fiber-optic network links most centers and connections are now digital
Nauru adequate local and international radiotelephone communication provided via Australian facilities
Nepal poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile-cellular telephone network
Netherlands highly developed and well maintained
Netherlands Antilles generally adequate facilities
New Caledonia a submarine cable network connection between New Caledonia and Australia, completed in 2007, increased network capacity and improved high-speed connectivity and access to international networks
New Zealand excellent domestic and international systems
Nicaragua system being upgraded by foreign investment; nearly all installed telecommunications capacity now uses digital technology, owing to investments since privatization of the formerly state-owned telecommunications company
Niger inadequate; small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in the southwestern area of Niger
Nigeria further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed; network quality remains a problem
Norfolk Island adequate
North Korea adequate system; nationwide fiber-optic network; mobile-cellular service expanding beyond Pyongyang
Northern Mariana Islands NA
Norway modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe
Oman modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable; domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations
Pakistan the telecommunications infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic investments in fixed-line and mobile-cellular networks; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks;
Palau NA
Panama domestic and international facilities well-developed
Papua New Guinea services are minimal; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services
Paraguay the fixed-line market is a state monopoly and fixed-line telephone service is meager; principal switching center is in Asuncion
Peru adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
Philippines good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate
Pitcairn Islands satellite-based phone services
Poland modernization of the telecommunications network has accelerated with market-based competition; fixed-line service, dominated by the former state-owned company, is dwarfed by the growth in mobile-cellular services
Portugal Portugal's telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities
Puerto Rico modern system integrated with that of the US by high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat with high-speed data capability
Qatar modern system centered in Doha
Republic of Macedonia competition from the mobile-cellular segment of the telecommunications market has led to a drop in fixed-line telephone subscriptions
Reunion adequate system; principal center is Saint-Denis
Romania the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services
Russia the telephone system is experiencing significant changes; there are more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly in urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Russia has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary for a market economy; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million in 1998 to more than 235 million in 2011; fixed line service has improved but a large demand remains
Rwanda small, inadequate telephone system primarily serves business, education, and government
Saint Barthelemy fully integrated access
Saint Helena can communicate worldwide
Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha can communicate worldwide
Saint Kitts and Nevis good interisland and international connections
Saint Lucia an adequate system that is automatically switched
Saint Martin fully integrated access
Saint Pierre and Miquelon adequate
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines adequate islandwide, fully automatic telephone system
Samoa adequate
San Marino automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system
Sao Tome and Principe local telephone network of adequate quality with most lines connected to digital switches
Saudi Arabia modern system including a combination of extensive microwave radio relays, coaxial cables, and fiber-optic cables
Senegal good system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
Serbia replacements of, and upgrades to, telecommunications equipment damaged during the 1999 war has resulted in a modern digitalized telecommunications system
Serbia and Montenegro replacements of, and upgrades to, telecommunications equipment damaged during the 1999 war has resulted in a modern telecommunications system more than 95% digitalized in 2009
Seychelles effective system
Sierra Leone marginal telephone service with poor infrastructure
Singapore excellent service
Slovakia Slovakia has a modern telecommunications system that has expanded dramatically in recent years with the growth in cellular services
Slovenia well-developed telecommunications infrastructure
Solomon Islands NA
Somalia the public telecommunications system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled during the civil war; private companies offer limited local fixed-line service and private wireless companies offer service in most major cities while charging the lowest international rates on the continent
South Africa the system is the best developed and most modern in Africa
South Korea excellent domestic and international services featuring rapid incorporation of new technologies
Spain well-developed, modern facilities; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 40 per 100 persons
Sri Lanka telephone services have improved significantly and are available in most parts of the country
Sudan well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially with wide coverage of most major cities
Suriname international facilities are good
Svalbard adequate
Swaziland a somewhat modern but not an advanced system
Sweden highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet and broadband penetration
Switzerland highly developed telecommunications infrastructure with excellent domestic and international services
Syria fair system currently undergoing significant improvement and digital upgrades, including fiber-optic technology and expansion of the network to rural areas; the armed insurgency that began in 2011 has led to major disruptions to the network and has caused telephone and Internet outages throughout the country
Taiwan provides telecommunications service for every business and private need
Tajikistan foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital was completed in 2012
Tanzania telecommunications services are marginal; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; small aperture terminal (VSAT) system under construction
Thailand high quality system, especially in urban areas like Bangkok
The Bahamas modern facilities
The Gambia adequate microwave radio relay and open-wire network; state-owned Gambia Telecommunications partially privatized in 2007
Togo fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system
Tokelau modern satellite-based communications system
Tonga competition between Tonga Telecommunications Corporation (TCC) and Shoreline Communications Tonga (SCT) is accelerating expansion of telecommunications; SCT granted approval to introduce high-speed digital service for telephone, Internet, and television while TCC has exclusive rights to operate the mobile-phone network; international telecom services are provided by government-owned Tonga Telecommunications International
Trinidad and Tobago excellent international service; good local service
Tunisia above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; telephone network is completely digitized; Internet access available throughout the country
Turkey comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially in mobile-cellular services
Turkmenistan telecommunications network remains underdeveloped and progress toward improvement is slow; strict government control and censorship inhibits liberalization and modernization
Turks and Caicos Islands fully digital system with international direct dialing
Tuvalu serves particular needs for internal communications
Uganda mobile cellular service is increasing rapidly, but the number of main lines is still deficient; work underway on a national backbone information and communications technology infrastructure; international phone networks and Internet connectivity provided through satellite and VSAT applications
Ukraine Ukraine's telecommunication development plan emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile-cellular system
United Arab Emirates modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubai
United Kingdom technologically advanced domestic and international system
United States a large, technologically advanced, multipurpose communications system
Uruguay fully digitalized
Uzbekistan digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas
Vanuatu NA
Venezuela modern and expanding
Vietnam Vietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system
Virgin Islands modern system with total digital switching, uses fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay
Wake Island satellite communications; 2 Defense Switched Network circuits off the Overseas Telephone System (OTS); located in the Hawaii area code - 808
Wallis and Futuna NA
West Bank continuing political and economic instability has impeded significant liberalization of the telecommunications industry
Western Sahara sparse and limited system
Yemen since unification in 1990, efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications network
Zambia among the best in sub-Saharan Africa
Zimbabwe system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance


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