Estonian WMD Stats


Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, Estonia was home to major Soviet nuclear and military facilities. After it regained its freedom in 1991, Tallinn dismantled many of the Soviet-era facilities, and joined international treaties, regimes, and organizations, including both NATO and the European Union in the spring of 2004. Nonproliferation issues concerning Estonia stem primarily from the field of export controls.


  • Biological: A description of the nation's situation with regards to the possession and manufacture of biological weapons of mass destruction
  • Nuclear: A description of the nation's situation with regards to the possession and manufacture of nuclear weapons
Biological Estonia acceded to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention in June 1993 and is a member of the Australia Group. There is no evidence to suggest that Tallinn possesses or is pursuing biological weapons capabilities. 1993
Nuclear Estonia played an important role in both the civilian and military nuclear programs of the former Soviet Union. Its major facilities were the Sillamae Metal and Chemical Production Plant (Silmet), which milled uranium ore until 1990, when it began to focus exclusively on rare-earth metal production, and the Paldiski training reactor facility, which had two research reactors (now dismantled) that were used to train Soviet naval personnel to work on nuclear submarines. Estonia receives foreign assistance from a number of countries, particularly from Scandinavia, to improve conditions at radioactive waste sites associated with the nuclear complex. Estonia is party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and signed an Additional Protocol with the International Atomic Energy Agency in April 2000. 2000


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