Chile is a South American country which occupies a narrow and long territory. Chile’s land was once ruled by two civilizations: the Incas which occupied northern territories, and the Mapuche which inhabited central and southern parts. It was the arrival of the Spaniards which unified the country under one rule in the mid 15th century. However, prolonged oppression and slavery by the Spanish led to numerous revolts which led to the death of many natives and Spaniards alike, although independence was not fully achieved until 1818.
After its independence from Spain, Chile became involved in a handful of wards with its neighbors. It was due to these wars that Chile was able to annex territories from both Peru and Bolivia. The country came under brief leadership and control by communists under Salvador Allende, but was brought down from power through a coup led by the infamous Augusto Pinochet. The dictatorial regime of Pinochet was filled with human rights violations including numerous extra judicial killings. Pinochet stayed as president of the country, tried to implement several economic and social policy modifications which led to the improved conditions in Chile, but he was denied the presidency when he lost to Patricio Aylwin in 1988.
Today, the long years of hardship by the Chilean people is no longer present. Chile is currently one of South America’s most prosperous and most stable nations along with Brazil, Argentina, and a handful others. Development indicators for the country are perceived to be very positive including human development, press freedom, and education. The IMF considers the country as a high income country, and is, therefore, a developed nation.
Population. Ranked 62nd in 2013.
GDP per capita. Ranked 41st in 2012.
743,800 sq km
Sq. km. Ranked 36th in 2008.